Myanmar's army-drafted constitution was approved in a referendum in May 2008. [346] The Lady had its world premiere on 12 September 2011 at the 36th Toronto International Film Festival. This page was last edited on 7 February 2021, at 09:33. In 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Myanmar, a transitional government. [16] The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. [280][281], These patterns stem from economic dynamics, including high income inequality, which results in residents of reproductive age opting for delay of marriage and family-building in favour of attempting to find employment and establish some form of wealth;[280] the average age of marriage in Myanmar is 27.5 for men, 26.4 for women. [224] Several activists in exile, including Thee Lay Thee Anyeint members, have returned to Myanmar after President Thein Sein's invitation to expatriates to return home to work for national development. In 1852, the British easily seized Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War. [46], The Bronze Age arrived c. 1500 BCE when people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice and domesticating poultry and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so. [43], Archaeological evidence shows that Homo erectus lived in the region now known as Myanmar as early as 750,000 years ago, with no more erectus finds after 75,000 years ago. For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley. [336] Football is played all over the country, even in villages, and its national team is ruled by the Myanmar Football Federation. After World War II, Burmese cinema continued to address political themes. When the non-Burman ethnic groups pushed for autonomy or federalism, alongside having a weak civilian government at the centre, the military leadership staged a coup d’état in 1962. Burmese traditional art concepts are popular and respected by the Burmese people and people from abroad. A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in 1974. [115] On 6 April 2016, Aung San Suu Kyi assumed the newly created role of state counsellor, a role akin to a prime minister. Danny Fisher", "TIFF List 2011: A Complete Guide To The Toronto International Film Festival", "Burma's Western Border as Reported by the Diplomatic Correspondence(1947–1975)", Republic of the Union of Myanmar – President's Office, Interactive timeline of turning points in Burmese history, Online Burma/Myanmar Library: Classified and annotated links to more than 17,000 full-text documents on Burma/Myanmar, Myanmar: Southeast Asia's Last Frontier for Investment, A Roadmap to Building Myanmar into the Food Basket of Asia, Myanmar's Institutional Infrastructure Constraints and How to Fill the Gaps, World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Myanmar,, States and territories established in 1948, Articles containing Burmese-language text, Articles with dead external links from September 2016, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles needing POV-check from November 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [154], In May 2013, Thein Sein became the first Myanmar president to visit the White House in 47 years; the last Burmese leader to visit the White House was Ne Win in September 1966. In May 1990, the government held free elections for the first time in almost 30 years, and the National League for Democracy (NLD), the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 492 seats (i.e., 80% of the seats). Birmanie ou Myanmar ? The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizeable powers, Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdom, emerged. Among reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles. [243][243] In December 2014, Myanmar set up its first stock exchange, the Yangon Stock Exchange. [306] Other religions are practised largely without obstruction, with the notable exception of some religious minorities such as the Rohingya people, who have continued to have their citizenship status denied and treated as illegal immigrants instead,[198] and Christians in Chin State. Yangon Myanmar Pour toute demande (For all enquiries) : (+95) (1) 536 900 / 535 428 / 537 122 (+95) 9 40 65 96 611 (+95) 9 40 65 96 622 Pour les inscriptions aux cours (For student registration) : (+95) 9 26 26 11 43 8 Le nom officiellement utilisé par l'ONU ou la Suisse est « Myanmar », tandis que la France et le Canada utilisent le nom « Birmanie ». Mohinga is the traditional breakfast dish and is Myanmar's national dish. As-tu fouillé un peu chez les concurrents ? According to some reports, the military's presence continues as the label "disciplined democracy" suggests. [290] The Anglo-Burmese at this time either fled the country or changed their names and blended in with the broader Burmese society. Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement. Chronicle of National Development Comparison Between Period Preceding 1988 and after (up to 31 December 2006). Von daher verstehe ich die Aufregung nicht. [251][252], Under the British administration, the people of Burma were at the bottom of social hierarchy, with Europeans at the top, Indians, Chinese, and Christianized minorities in the middle, and Buddhist Burmese at the bottom. [121] Regions are predominantly Bamar (that is, mainly inhabited by the dominant ethnic group). À propos du nom de ce pays, on peut lire ceci sur Wikipédia : Nur ergänzend : In D hört/liest man oft beides in ein und demselben Bericht/Text ... zusätzlich wird gelegentlich auch Burma/burmesisch verwendet ... Ich habe den Eindruck, dass man in Frankreich wie in Deutschland beides sagt, Birmanie und Burma aber häufiger als Myanmar. [277] The national population density is 76 per square kilometre (200/sq mi), among the lowest in Southeast Asia. [44] The first evidence of Homo sapiens is dated to about 25,000 BP with discoveries of stone tools in central Myanmar. Myanmar has 1,930 km (1,200 mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter.[2]. The balance was upset when the Pyu came under repeated attacks from Nanzhao between the 750s and the 830s. Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer. En 1939, tous ces billets ont été remplacés par des Roupies birmanes. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system after nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Myanmar. Obama plays it safe during historic visit", "Special Economic Measures (Burma) Regulations", "The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic provides CZK 2.5 million of immediate assistance to flood victims in Myanmar/Burma", Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, "Countries, economies and regions – Myanmar", "Burma or Myanmar: Will the US make the switch? [87], In early August 2009, a conflict broke out in Shan State in northern Myanmar. [218] The cause of the riots is unclear, with many commentators citing the killing of ten Burmese Muslims by ethnic Rakhine after the rape and murder of a Rakhine woman as the main cause. [257], The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalise all industries, with the exception of agriculture. However, the military junta refused to cede power[81] and continued to rule the nation as SLORC until 1997, and then as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) until its dissolution in March 2011. In 1989, SLORC declared martial law after widespread protests. After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu embarked upon a policy of nationalisation and the state was declared the owner of all land. Having held off Ava, the Mon-speaking Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next 350 years. By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had subdued much of Laos and fought and won the Burmese–Siamese War against Ayutthaya and the Sino-Burmese War against Qing China. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages. On 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November 2005, officially named the new capital Naypyidaw, meaning "city of the kings".[82]. Several competing Shan States came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley. [144] [305] According to 2014 Myanmar Census, 87.9% of the population identifies as Buddhists. She continued, "I use Burma very often because I am used to using it. Die Namensgebung für einen Staat ist in aller Regel keine Wahnsinnstat, selbst wenn sie von einem diktatorischen Regime begangen wird, sondern ein politischer Akt. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems. [12] There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, and religious clashes. [315][316] Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. [234], There has been speculation that Myanmar is interested in developing nuclear weapons, and that North Korea was planning to export nuclear technology to Myanmar. Myanmar has been a member of ASEAN since 1997. Burmese citizens account for 80% of all migrant workers in Thailand. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. [311] Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while average annual rainfall in the dry zone in central Myanmar is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). At least one tourist company has successfully run commercial overland routes through these borders since 2013. [162] Myanmar imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India. ", "Representations and travel advice – Myanmar", "Myanmar blast hits anti-Muslim monk's event – Asia-Pacific", "Carr apprehensive about Rohingyas' future in Myanmar", "Aung San Suu Kyi arrives in Thailand for official visit", "Birmanie: 87.000 Rohingyas réfugiés au Bangladesh en dix jours, selon l'ONU", "Definition of Myanmar – Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)", "Myanmar – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary", "Prehistory to Protohistory of Myanmar: A Perspective of Historical Geography", "pIRIR and IR-RF dating of archaeological deposits at Badahlin and Gu Myaung Caves – First luminescence ages for Myanmar", "The Art and Culture of Burma (Chapter 1)", "Skeletal Remains of Nyaunggan, Budalin Township, Monywa District, Sagaing Division", "A Pyu Homeland in the Samon Valley: a new theory of the origins of Myanmar's early urban system", "Chindits remember their fallen comrades", "China-Burma-India: Merrill's Marauders. [158] Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. [283] The Rakhine people constitute 4% of the population. For the first time in numerous decades, the publication of privately owned newspapers commenced in the country.[339]. Some are privately owned. Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F). In the 14th and 15th centuries, Ava fought wars of unification but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities,[73] and multi-party elections were held in 1951–1952, 1956 and 1960. Mon, Palaung, and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Myanmar. The evolution and growth of Burmese literature and theatre continued, aided by an extremely high adult male literacy rate for the era (half of all males and 5% of females). Moi, à ta place, je ferais comme ceux qui travaillent avec les parenthèses. [172], There is consensus that the former military regime in Myanmar (1962–2010) was one of the world's most repressive and abusive regimes. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. (Calvendo Places) | BuddhaART | ISBN: 9781325191550 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Naturalised citizenship is only given to those who have at least one parent with one of these types of Burmese citizenship or can provide "conclusive evidence" that their parents entered and resided in Burma prior to independence in 1948. Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo's administrative reforms and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. These wars are predominantly struggles for ethnic and sub-national autonomy, with the areas surrounding the ethnically Bamar central districts of the country serving as the primary geographical setting of conflict. Photos du birmanie, galerie d'images couleur et noir et blanc avec commentaires Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, and General Saw Maung staged a coup d'état and formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Many refugees headed to neighbouring Bangladesh, including 200,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan. [215] Widespread violence, including evidence of indiscriminate killings and ethnic cleansing has been reported. The environmental areas where Myanmar performs worst (ie. [163][164] In 2010 as part of the Wikileaks leaked cables, Myanmar was suspected of using North Korean construction teams to build a fortified surface-to-air missile facility. Es handelt sich also mitnichten um eine Namensänderung, sondern lediglich um eine alternative Schreibweise. [56] Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level, although Tantric, Mahayana, Hinduism, and folk religion remained heavily entrenched. [101] During the incident, the government of China was accused of giving military assistance to the ethnic Chinese rebels. The constitution of Myanmar, its third since independence, was drafted by its military rulers and published in September 2008. [184], Based on the evidence gathered by Amnesty photographs and video of the ongoing armed conflict between the Myanmar military and the Arakan Army (AA), attacks escalated on civilians in Rakhine State. This period is considered a golden age for Burmese culture. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 73 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 47. [104] The military junta was dissolved on 30 March 2011. Ming Yu Hah, Amnesty International’s Deputy Regional Director for Campaigns said, the UN Security Council must urgently refer the situation in Myanmar to the International Criminal Court. In the 1930s, agricultural production fell dramatically as international rice prices declined and did not recover for several decades. However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death in 1581, completely collapsing by 1599. They are mainly targeted or deceived by brokers into making them believe that better opportunities and wages exist for them abroad. Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore. Aux États-Unis l'indicatif téléphonique est le +1 et l'indicatif international de sortie du pays est le 011. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. [63] With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, being annexed on 1 January 1886. [240] Acquired funding and proper planning has allowed Myanmar to better prepare for the impacts of climate change by enacting programs which teach its people new farming methods, rebuild its infrastructure with materials resilient to natural disasters, and transition various sectors towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.