Compare also the epithet Fluonia, Fluviona of Roman Juno, discussed by G. Martianus Capella: Saturni Caelestis Iuno, in region XIV of Heaven. Over part of the Roman remains the first Christian church of the Netherlands was built in the 4th century AD. Every year, on the first of March, women held a festival in honour of Juno Lucina called the Matronalia. Her various epithets thus show a complex of mutually interrelated functions that in the view of Georges Dumézil and Vsevolod Basanoff (author of Les dieux Romains) can be traced back to the Indoeuropean trifunctional ideology: as Regina and Moneta she is a sovereign deity, as Sespeis, Curitis (spear holder) and Moneta (again) she is an armed protectress, as Mater and Curitis (again) she is a goddess of the fertility and wealth of the community in her association with the curiae. [92] The only ancient source who refers to the presence of this divine triad in Greece is Pausanias X 5, 1–2, who mentions its existence in describing the Φωκικόν in Phocis. On this day married woman ask… [6] In some inscriptions Jupiter himself is called Iuuntus, and one of the epithets of Jupiter is Ioviste, a superlative form of iuuen- meaning "the youngest". He's also a little on the awkward side. It is conventionally thought that the month of January is named for Janus (), but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno … For other uses, see, Juno in Martianus Capella's division of Heaven, The ancient were divided on the etymology of Lucina: some connected the epithet with the word. The idea of purity and virginity is stressed in Ovid's description. Palmer accepts Cicero's etymology as a possibility while adding mons mount, hill, verb e-mineo and noun monile referred to the Capitol, place of her cult. By continuing to … Juno Regina had two temples (aedes) in Rome. [177] See section below for details. [16] Others though prefer to dismiss her aspects of femininity and fertility[17] and stress only her quality of being the spirit of youthfulness, liveliness and strength, regardless of sexual connexions, which would then change according to circumstances: thus in men she incarnates the iuvenes, a word often used to designate soldiers, hence resulting in a tutelary deity of the sovereignty of peoples; in women capable of bearing children, from puberty on she oversees childbirth and marriage. Der Monatsname Juni leitet sich von Juno her. She was present in many towns of ancient Italy: at Lanuvium as Sespeis Mater Regina, Laurentum, Tibur, Falerii, Veii as Regina, at Tibur and Falerii as Regina and Curitis, Tusculum and Norba as Lucina. These gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. [157] Even though no text links the cults of the Ara maxima with Juno Sospita, her temple, founded in 193 BC, was located in the Forum Holitorium near the Porta Carmentalis, one of the sites of the legend of Hercules in Rome. Rose "Mana in Greece and Rome" in, Cf. The story finds parallels in Irish and Indian mythologies. Juno was sent to Samos when she was a very young child. In his relationship to the goddess he takes the place of the king of Veii. that as men possess a tutelary entity or double named genius, so women have their own one named juno, has been maintained by many scholars, lastly Kurt Latte. Hera's presence had already been attested at Caere in the sanctuary of Manganello. Integrated into iOS. [81][82], Gagé and D'Albret remark an accentuation of the matronal aspect of Juno Regina that led her to be the most matronal of the Roman goddesses by the time of the end of the republic. This deity is the Punic Astarte/Tanit, usually associated with Saturn in Africa. Februar Blumenopfer dargebracht wurden. Octavianus will repeat the same translation with the statue of the Juno of Perusia in consequence of a dream[78], That a goddess evoked in war and for political reasons receive the homage of women and that women continue to have a role in her cult is explained by Palmer[79] as a foreign cult of feminine sexuality of Etruscan derivation. The remains were moved then sometime between the 1st century and the 4th century to the Netherlands.[207]. [164], Magna Graecia and Lanuvium mixed their influence in the formation of the Roman Hercules and perhaps there was a Sabine element too as is testified by Varro, supported by the find of the sanctuary of Hercules Curinus at Sulmona and by the existence of a Juno Curitis in Latium. Martianus Capella's collocation of gods into sixteen different regions of Heaven[201] is supposed to be based on and to reflect Etruscan religious lore, at least in part. She orbits the Sun every 4.36 years in an elliptical orbit that covers the depth of the asteroid belt and is inclined to the ecliptic by 13 degrees. Faced with an unplanned pregnancy, an offbeat young woman makes an unusual decision regarding the unborn child. Duval "Les Lupercales, Junon et le printemps. At Tibur and Falerii their sacerdos was a male, called pontifex sacrarius, a fact that has been seen as a proof of the relevance of the goddess to the whole society. [112] Claudius Helianus later wrote "...she has much new of Hera Argolis"[113] The iconography of Argive Hera, matronal and regal, looks quite far away from the warlike and savage character of Iuno Seispes, especially considering that it is uncertain whether the former was an armed Hera. Others think her military and poliadic qualities arise from her being a fertility goddess who through her function of increasing the numbers of the community became also associated to political and military functions.[19]. While some scholars maintain she was known as such at Rome since the most ancient times as paredra (consort) of Jupiter in the Capitoline Triad[69] others think she is a new acquisition introduced to Rome after her evocatio from Veii.[70]. G. Dumézil above p. 171 : "It is not certain whether Thesan be a designation of Uni". The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology. [22] A goat was sacrificed and its hide cut into strips, used to make whips known as februum and amiculus Iunonis, wielded by the Luperci. also Virgil's and Ovid's ascribing of analogous actions, if opposite in aim, to the two gods in the wars of Aeneas (Vergil. p. 82 L; Martianus Capella above II 149; Arnobius. Her cult included the annual feeding of a sacred snake with barley cakes by virgin maidens. [5] The iuvenis is he who has the fullness of vital force. Der Monatsname Juni leitet sich von Juno her. It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature. Part of the following sections is based on the article by Geneviève Dury Moyaers and Marcel Renard "Aperçu critique des travaux relatifs au culte de Junon" in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römische Welt 1981 p. 142-202. [210] William Shakespeare briefly employs Juno as a masque character in The Tempest (Act IV, Scene I). Juno offers a variety of Internet service options. September 2020 um 21:11 Uhr bearbeitet. [132] Many terracotta statuettes have been discovered which represent a woman with a child: one of them represents exactly the scene described by Cicero of a woman with two children of different sex who touch her breast. Modern scholars have proposed the town of Currium or Curria, Quirinus, *quir(i)s or *quiru, the Sabine word for spear and curia. A daughter of Saturn, she is the wife of Jupiter and the mother of Mars, Vulcan, Bellona and Juventas. [194] Nonetheless Augustine of Hippo had already stated that Juno was named Astarte in the Punic language,[195] a notion that the discovery of the Pyrgi lamellae has proved correct. Actions: Bleeker doesn't Her paredra was the Phoenician god Ba'al, interpreted as Saturn. The actual epithet Regina could though come from Veii. Romans believed the genius of somebody was an entity that embodied his essential character, personality, and also originally his vital, generative force and raison d' être. S. Weinstock has proposed to identify this entity with one of the spouses of Neptune, as the epithet recurs below (I 81) used in this sense. [61] Palmer views the rituals of the curiae devoted to her as a reminiscence of the origin of the curiae themselves in rites of evocatio, a practice the Romans continued to use for Juno or her equivalent at later times as for Falerii, Veii and Carthage. Juno is an ancient name that feels as fresh as if it had been minted — well, not yesterday, but in 2007. The second festival was devoted to Juno Moneta on June 1. Juno er en ung, kvik gymnasiepige, der pludselig opdager, at hun er blevet gravid med sin bedste ven, Paulie. Open notebooks from anywhere in iOS with just few taps. [134] Dumézil has elaborated an interpretative theory according to which this contradiction would be an intrinsic, fundamental feature of Indoeuropean deities of the primordial and sovereign level, as it finds a parallel in Vedic religion. [130] Praeneste offers a glimpse into original Latin mythology: the local goddess Fortuna is represented as nursing two infants, one male and one female, namely Jove (Jupiter) and Juno. [84] It is mentioned several times by Livy in connexion with sacrifices offered in atonement of prodigia. Juno accounts include e-mail, webmail, instant messaging compatibility. Juno's theology is one of the most complex and disputed issues in Roman religion. Download on the Apple Store. A temple to Iuno Sospita was vowed by consul Gaius Cornelius Cethegus in 197 BC and dedicated in 194. Juno is certainly the divine protectress of the community, who shows both a sovereign and a fertility character, often associated with a military one. Her main festival, the Matronalia was held on 1st March. The last of her yearly festivals was that of Juno Sospita on February 1. J. Gagé dismisses these assumptions as groundless speculations as no Jupiter Rex is attested and in accord with Roe D'Albret stresses that at Rome no presence of a Juno Regina is mentioned before Marcus Furius Camillus, while she is attested in many Etruscan and Latin towns. The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on Juno the role of tutelary goddess of marriage (Iuno Pronuba). [171] According to Georg Wissowa and K. Latte, Genius (from the root gen-, whence gigno bear or be born, archaic also geno) would designate the specific virile generative potency, as opposed to feminine nature, reflected in conception and delivery, under the tutelage of Juno Lucina. The flamen or special priest belonging to Juno Seispes continued to be a Lanuvian, specially nominated by the town to take care of the goddess even though she was housed in her temple at Rome (in the Forum Holitorium). In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (/ ˈ dʒ eɪ n ə s / JAY-nəs; Latin: IANVS (Iānus), pronounced ) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, frames, and endings. Ephemer. In book II of his Fasti, Ovid derives the month's name from februae (expiations);[20] lustrations designed to remove spiritual contamination or ritual pollution accumulated in the previous year. The view that she was also a Moon goddess though is no longer accepted by scholars, as such a role belongs to Diana Lucifera: through her association with the moon she governed the feminine physiological functions, menstrual cycle and pregnancy: as a rule all lunar deities are deities of childbirth. [64] Palmer too sees in her a military aspect.[65]. P. Drossart "Nonae caprotinae: la fausse capture des Aurores" in, A description of Juno Sespeis's attire is given in Cicero, E. Bickel "Beiträge zur Römische Religionsgeshichte. The alliance of the three aspects of Juno finds a strictly related parallel to the Lupercalia in the festival of the Nonae Caprotinae. All of our clients are now taking advantage of Microsoft 365 subscriptions to move critical collaborative services into the Cloud and successfully operate teams and … Continue reading "Welcome to Juno … [35] probably not far west of the church of S. Prassede, where inscriptions relating to her cult have been found. [30] While the protection of pregnancy is stressed by Duval, Palmer sees in Fluonia only the Juno of lustration in river water. Die Gleichsetzung geschah vermutlich unter etruskischem Einfluss. Perhaps a second festival of Juno Moneta was held on October 10, possibly the date of the dedication of her temple. Otto.[172]. Juno is also known to be wearing a diadem. The epithet Lucina[13] is particularly revealing since it reflects two interrelated aspects of the function of Juno: cyclical renewal of time in the waning and waxing of the moon and protection of delivery and birth (as she who brings to light the newborn as vigour, vital force). These aspects of Juno mark the heavenly and worldly sides of her function. It was easy for the Roman concept of Genius to expand annexing other similar religious figures as the Lares and the Greek δαίμων ἀγαθός. Juno is a main belt asteroid discovered by German astronomer, Karl Ludwig Harding, on March 29, 1807. [8] Many occurred during the presence of Hannibal in Italy. when the community is in its direst straits, needs the intervention of a divine tutelary goddess, a divine queen, since the king (divine or human) has failed to appear or has fled. [144] At the nonae Caprotinae similarly Juno had the function of aiding and strengthening the moon as the nocturnal light, at the time when her force was supposed to be at its lowest, after the Summer solstice. Laut Varro wurde der Kult der Juno Lucina, der Göttin der Geburt, vom sabinischen König Titus Tatius eingeführt. It’s customisable to your heart’s content (though the defaults are pretty good too) and has power features like multiple cursors, fuzzy file finding and Vim keybindings. Late into her pregnancy, Juno finds out that Bleeker is taking another girl to prom. In fact the Juno Curritis of Falerii shows a complex articulated structure closely allied to the threefold Juno Seispes of Lanuvium. [165], The mythical theme of the suckling of the adult Heracles by Hera,[166] though being of Greek origin,[167] is considered by scholars as having received its full acknowledgement and development in Etruria: Heracles has become a bearded adult on the mirrors of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. [53], Ancient etymologies associated the epithet with Cures,[54] with the Sabine word for spear curis,[55] with currus cart,[56] with Quirites,[57] with the curiae, as king Titus Tatius dedicated a table to Juno in every curia, that Dionysius still saw.[58]. However the internal tension of the character led to a duplication in Scandinavian religion: Frigg resulted in a merely sovereign goddess, the spouse of wizard god Óðinn, while from the name of Freyr, typical god of the third function, was extracted a second character, Freyja, confined as a Vani to the sphere of pleasure and wealth. Perhaps the Romans were not completely satisfied with this solution as in 194 BC consul C. Cornelius Cethegus erected a temple to the Juno Sospita of Lanuvium in the Forum Holitorium (vowed three years earlier in a war with the Galli Insubri):[116]); in it the goddess was honoured in military garb. With Elliot Page, Michael Cera, Jennifer Garner, Jason Bateman. On this point it looks remarkable that also in Martianus Capella's division of Heaven a Juno Hospitae Genius is mentioned in region IX, and not a Juno: the sex of this Genius is feminine. Get Juno DSL and Dial-Up Internet services at affordable prices. The sacred geese of the Capitol were lodged in her temple: as they are recorded in the episode of the Gallic siege (ca. Juno (lateinisch Iuno, Beiname „Unxia“) ist eine altitalische, insbesondere römische Göttin. The traditional depiction of this warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, who bore a goatskin, or a goatskin shield, called the aegis. Dumézil thinks the third, military, aspect of Juno is reflected in Juno Curitis and Moneta. Auf Abbildungen ist sie mit einem Diadem dargestellt. contains a full text translation of the work. After Wissowa[25] many scholars have remarked the similarity between the Juno of the Lupercalia and the Juno of Lanuvium Seispes Mater Regina as both are associated with the goat, symbol of fertility. The rites of the month of February and the Nonae Caprotinae of July 5 offer a depiction of Juno's roles in the spheres of fertility, war, and regality. [10] Outside Latium in Campania at Teanum she was Populona (she who increase the number of the people or, in K. Latte's understanding of the iuvenes, the army), in Umbria at Pisaurum Lucina, at Terventum in Samnium Regina, at Pisarum Regina Matrona, at Aesernia in Samnium Regina Populona. Sacred Plants:The wild fig tree. [161] Contacts with Central Italy and similarity would have favoured a certain assimilation between Latin warlike Junos and Argive Heras and the association with Heracles of Latin Junos. He preserves a tutelary function on this universe as the gatekeeper of Heaven. It was kept in good condition down to the time of Livy at public expenses. Under this epithet Juno is attested in many places, notably at Falerii[49] and Tibur. [127][128] However D. P. Harmon has remarked that the meaning of Seispes cannot be seen as limited to the warrior aspect, as it implies a more complex, comprehensive function, i. e. of Saviour.[129]. [91] The goddess was once again transferred to Rome by emperor Elagabalus. In Latium are relatively well known the instances of Tibur, Falerii, Laurentum and Lanuvium. Its existence is attested by Varro ‘'Lingua Latina‘' V 149; Martial, "On the way leading directly from Deulis to Delphi, on the left hand side...; there the towns of Phocis hold their common assemblies...the building is very large, supported by rows of columns. Juno plumbed the Great Red Spot’s depths, showing that its roots are 200 miles (320 kilometers) deep — 50 to 100 times as deep as Earth’s oceans. [100] The martial aspect of these Junos is conspicuous, quite as much as that of fecundity and regality: the first two look strictly interconnected: fertility guaranteed the survival of the community, peaceful and armed. L. A. Mac Kay considers the goddess more ancient than her etymology on the testimony of Valerius Maximus who states she was the Juno of Veii. [85] Two inscriptions found near the church of S. Sabina indicate the approximate site of the temple, which corresponds with its place in the lustral procession of 207 BC,[86] near the upper end of the Clivus Publicius. [198] However the entire picture should have been familiar in Italian and Roman religious lore as is shown by the complexity and ambivalence of the relationship of Juno with Rome and Romans in Virgil's Aeneid, who has Latin, Greek and Punic traits, result of a plurisaecular process of amalgamation. [88] It was connected by a porch with a temple of Fortuna,[89] perhaps that of Fortuna Equestris. Janus would then be the patron of the feria as god of transitions, Juno for her affinities to Janus, especially on the day of the kalendae. The relationship of the female sovereign deity with the god of beginnings and passages is reflected mainly in their association with the kalendae of every month, which belong to both, and in the festival of the Tigillum Sororium of October 1. [59] The *quiru- would design the sacred spear that gave the name to the primitive curiae. Juno trägt als Götterkönigin ein mit Edelsteinen besetztes Zepter (Buch 3/Vers 264). [170] In the past it has also been argued that goddess Juno herself would be the issue of a process of abstraction from the individual junos of every woman. Juno was connected with all aspects of the life of women, most particularly married life. High-voltage electrical charges contribute to the formation of auroras at Jupiter’s poles, just as they do on Earth. Juno er en amerikansk dramakomediefilm fra 2007 instrueret af Jason Reitman og med manuskript af Diablo Cody. A she goat is sacrificed to her after a ritual hunting. Iuno Caelestis is thence in turn assimilated to Ops and Greek Rhea. 2000-luvun lopulla hän on tullut soolouransa lisäksi tunnetuksi yhtyeissä … Renard rejects this hypothesis since he sees in Uni and Thesan two distinct deities, though associated in cult. [148] Modern scholars are divided on the interpretation of J. Curiatius and J. Sororia. Juno (band), an American musical group Juno (rapper), Finnish hip hop artist Juno (singer), South Korean singer Songs "Juno", a song by … [26] This unity is underlined by the role of Faunus in the aetiologic story told by Ovid and the symbolic relevance of the Lupercal:[clarification needed][27] asked by the Roman couples at her lucus how to overcome the sterility that ensued the abduction of the Sabine women, Juno answered through a murmuring of leaves "Italidas matres sacer hircus inito" "That a sacred ram cover the Italic mothers". Ignorance is Bliss this Valentines Day as a beautiful configuration occurs in the heavens. Such an interpretation has been critically reviewed by Walter F. [182][183], The genius was believed to be associated with the forehead of each man, while goddess Juno, not the juno of every woman, was supposed to have under her jurisdiction the eyebrows of women[184] or to be the tutelary goddess of the eyebrows of everybody, irrespective of one's sex. This festival would thus show a ritual that can prove the trifunctional nature of Juno.[47]. Moreover, according to Basanoff these too (breasts, milky juice, genitalia, present or symbolised in the fig and the goat) in general, and here in particular, have an inherently apotropaic value directly related to the nature of Juno. Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", and iuvenescere, "rejuvenate", sometimes connecting it to the renewal of the new and waxing moon, perhaps implying the idea of a moon goddess.[9]. Derfor finder hun et "perfekt" forældrepar til hendes ufødte barn: et velhavende forstadspar, hvis største ønske er at adoptere. Substitute image as browser does not support the video tag. See our Products and Services page for a full list of our offerings. 396-390 BC) by Livy, the temple should have existed before Furius's dedication. Iuno (pl. [188], Among the female entities that in the pontifical invocations accompanied the naming of gods, Juno was associated to Heries, which she shared with Mars (Heres Martea).[189]. Camillus was devout to her and to Matuta, both matronal deities. Der Kult der Iuno gehört zu einem der ältesten und wichtigsten Italiens. [137] The theology of Janus is also presented in the carmen Saliare. Juno Turbo is a great alternative to cable, dsl and other high … In Capdeville's view it is only natural that a god of beginnings and a sovereign mother deity have common features, as all births can be seen as beginnings, Juno is invoked by deliverers, who by custom hold a key, symbol of Janus. It is thence comparable with the theonyms found in the sixteen cases of the outer rim of the Piacenza Liver. [2] As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina ("Queen") and was a member of the Capitoline Triad (Juno Capitolina), centered on the Capitoline Hill in Rome; it consisted of her, Jupiter, and Minerva, goddess of wisdom. [11], Other epithets of hers that were in use at Rome include Moneta and Caprotina, Tutula, Fluonia or Fluviona, Februalis, the last ones associated with the rites of purification and fertility of February.[12]. She is the great purifier, "she who puts the worshipper in the ritual, pure condition" (yaož dā). Paulus ex Festo above p. 75 L; Mythographi Romani III 3; Martianus Capella. At Rome this epithet may have been applied to a Juno other than that of the temple on the Aventine built to lodge the evocated Veian Juno as the rex sacrorum and his wife-queen were to offer a monthly sacrifice to Juno in the Regia. [125] She bestows on females an easy delivery and timely milking. Music. The snake dwelt in a deep cave within the precinct of the temple, on the arx of the city: the maidens approached the lair blindfolded. However both G. Wissowa and K. Latte allow that this ritual could have been adapted to fit theology of the Augustan restoration. The feria of the goddess coincides with a Natalis Herculis, birthday of Hercules, which was celebrated with ludi circenses, games in the circus. Mater Matuta. What is known of the rites of October 1 shows at Rome the legend has been used as an aetiological myth for the yearly purification ceremonies which allowed the desacralisation of soldiers at the end of the warring season, i.e. At the beginning of the 20th century, a derivation was proposed from iuven- (as in Latin iuvenis, "youth"), through a syncopated form iūn- (as in iūnix, "heifer," and iūnior, "younger").

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